The Spokan Indian Reservation was established by executive order on January 18th 1881 by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Our traditional lands were reduced from over 3 million acres to 156,000 acres. The Spokan Indians did not segregate themselves, but after colonization we found ourselves being referred to as having three clans. 1.) The Upper Spokan (sntʔtʔúlixʷ) resided along the Little Spokane River and all the country east of the Lower Spokan to within the borders of the Coeur ‘d Alene and Kalispel. 2.) The Middle Spokan (snxʷme̓nʔey) occupied the area near Spokane Falls to Hangman (Latah) Creek and Deep Creek to Tum Tum. 3.) The Lower Spokan (scqesciłni) traditionally occupied the lower Spokane River from Little Falls to the confluence of the Columbia River.
Photo is of the Sand Bar, pre Grand Coulee Dam (1910)