Ed Fredlund and Raymond Noyes at Point of Rocks, c'aynim 'alikinwaaspa (Bear Paw Mountain)

Cultural Narrative: 

The "Point of Rocks" at the battlefield of c'aynim 'alikinwaaspa (Bear Paw Mountains). Two men are standing at the base, on the left is Raymond Noyes and on the right is Ed Fredlund. Both men originated from Chinook, Montana. On verso of photograph: " The "Point of Rocks" at the Bear Paw Mountain battlefield where some of the Nez Perce sniped from annoying the soldiers considerably until located and killed. The rock in foreground even sheltered one warrior. Left Raymond Noyes right Ed Fredlund both of Chinook Montana. Bear Paw Mountains was no doubt a Nemesis yes a "Jonah" for Joseph as he was never to see the land he was promised to be sent to the Nez Perce reservation in west Idaho. Another link in the chain of broken promises of the U.S. in dealing with the Indians. Photo Nov. 24th 1932 by Emil Kopac, Oshkosh Nebr."

The Nez Perce surrendered on October 5, 1877. It was here that hinmatóoyalahtq’it (Chief Joseph) made his now famous "I will fight no more, forever," speech. McWhorter visited this site multiple times, first in 1927 when, along with hímiin maqsmáqs (Yellow Wolf), the battlefield was first staked. In 1932, when this photograph was taken, McWhorter returned to replace stakes that were missing due to weather and erosion.