Lamáta (White Bird Battlefield)

Cultural Narrative: 

In the spring of 1877, General O.O. Howard gave an ultimatum to the Nimiipuu, giving them the choice to either relocate to the Nez Perce reservation peacefully or by force. With heavy hearts and little time to gather their horses, cattle, and personal belongings, the wal'wáama (Wallowa band) of Nimiipuu accompanied by some of their pelúucpuu (Palus) and Cayuse relatives, complied with Howard's order to evacuate. Between the wal'áwa (Wallowa Valley) and Lapwai, they stopped at tipa’xlíwam (Split Rock) (near ‘alwánpa (Tolo Lake)), a traditional Nez Perce gathering place on the qém’es (Camas) Prairie. While there, the bands enjoyed their last stretch of complete freedom. A few warriors led by Wahlitits attacked some homesteads and traveling wagons along the Salmon River. These attacks initiated Capt. Perry's journey to Lamáta (White Bird Canyon).