Looking Across c'aynim 'alikinwaaspa (Bear Paw Mountain Battlefield)

Cultural Narrative: 

Landscape view of the c'aynim 'alikinwaaspa (Bear Paw Mountain battlefield) looking down from the bluff. It was here that Nez Perce warriors dug in and fired upon Colonel Miles' men during the last battle of the Nez Perce War of 1877. This was the final battle of the war, and the location where the Nez Perce surrendered on October 5, 1877. It was here that hinmatóoyalahtq’it (Chief Joseph) made his now famous speech containing the line, "I will fight no more, forever." McWhorter visited this site multiple times, first in 1927 when, along with hímiin maqsmáqs (Yellow Wolf), the battlefield was first staked. In 1932, when this photograph was taken, McWhorter returned to replace stakes that were missing due to weather and erosion. On verso of the photograph: "Looking across the battlefield of Bear Paw Mountains. Photo Nov 24th 1932 by Emil Kopac Oshkosh Nebr."