This is a pre-1877 image that depicts three leading warriors from the wal’wáama or what later on was termed the Joseph Band. Even though our bands weren't named according to leaders. That was a military sort of term of convenience. But these individuals were from the area of northeast Oregon, along the Snake River, Grand Ronde River, ‘imnáha area. And it depicts one of the one or two only known images of Ollokot, who was the younger brother of [ ] or Young Joseph. And he was a very outstanding warrior amongst the wal’wáama in 1877. And this was taken at Fort Walla Walla, just prior, I think May of 1877 was when this photo was taken. When they were advocating to retain their rights in the Wallowa Valley and the surrounding areas that the wal’wáama people had utilized for generations.
And the individual on the far left is an individual known as wetyétmes liklíin, or Circling Swan. And he has descendants on the Nez Perce reservation as well. And it is he that is credited with perhaps composing the song that is very well known in the páaxam or war dance, pow wow arena known as the duck and dive. We call it [ ]. And he was the individual that was credited with, him and his descendants were credited with composing of that song, which relates to the capture of the mountain howitzer at the Big Hole Battle, the place we call ‘ickum’kiléelixpe, Place of the Buffalo Calf. And that was a very monumental feat that had happened that changed the whole course of a battle into what was ultimately a defeat into the Nez Perce people that were involved at that time being able to continue on and ultimately culminating, at least a major part of the engagements at Bear Paw Battlefield.
The individual on the right hand side of this kind of oval cut photograph is hiyúum hipáayma, or Grizzly Bear in the Middle. And this was the elder individual that carried that name. And subsequent members of that lineage exist on the Umatilla reservation. That name is still carried. But this is the original one. hiyúum hipáayma is a reference to that grizzly bear like in the middle or in the center.
This is one of the few photos that are from the 1870s period as most of the images that are known in collections and archives are from the early part of the nineteenth century, when many of these individuals had, these individuals, which had already passed away. I think all these individuals, especially Ollokot, died at the Bear Paw Battlefield. So many of them didn’t live long enough to be photographed in later photography as Young Joseph and some of the others that had been photographed throughout their lifetime. But when in fact most of the surviving images depict them at a much later age. And Ollokot was, during the 1877 period, was in his thirties at that time. And he was a very strong and imposing warrior, as was many of the warrior class that were considered a part of the warrior class amongst the Nez Perce people. And he was said to have been six-foot-two, six-foot-three in height, and very strong and powerfully built. And he also has lineage, left lineage and descendants on the Nez Perce reservation as well as the Umatilla reservation.