Behind this boulder, a Nez Perce warrior lay sniping Miles' men at c'aynim 'alikinwaaspa (Bear Paw Mountain). Left: Ed Fredlund, right: Raymond R. Noyes, of Chinook. Photo Nov 24th 1932 by Emil Kopac Oshkosh Neb. "Ed Fredlund, county surveyor, and Raymond Noyes, standing by a boulder scarred by bullets from the c'aynim 'alikinwaaspa (Battle of Bear Paw Mountain), which occurred between September 30 and October 5, 1877. It was here that the Nez Perce made their last stand before surrendering to Colonel Nelson Miles. The Nez Perce were within three days journey of the Canadian border when hinmatóoyalahtq’it (Joseph) surrendered, making his now famous speech containing the line, "I will fight no more, forever." A Nez Perce warrior hid under this rock as he sniped at Colonel Miles' approaching troops. McWhorter visited this site multiple times, first in 1927 when, along with hímiin maqsmáqs (Yellow Wolf), the battlefield was first staked. In 1932, when this photograph was taken, McWhorter returned to replace stakes that were missing due to weather and erosion. Pictured are Ed Fredlund and Raymond Noyes, both of Chinook, Montana. Fredlund was a county surveyor who accompanied McWhorter to record the exact locations of key sites. Also present was photographer Emil Kopac of Oshkosh, Nebraska, who captured this shot. This photograph has an accompanying letter from photographer Emil Kopac, of Oshkosh, Nebraska, who captured the shot. The letter dates from 2-17-1940, when McWhorter was writing the manuscript for "Hear Me, My Chiefs! Nez Perce History and Legend." It identifies the boulder as the place where Tah-tah-koh-lih-ken was wounded."